All the machines I have shown so far have been Vibrating Shuttle machines, where the shuttle carriage is to the right of the needle and the shuttle moves back and forth in an arc. Singer patented their design for Vibrating Shuttles in 1886. Before then they had been manufacturing Transverse Shuttle machines.
These photographs are of a Frister and Rossmann Transverse Shuttle machine manufactured (probably) in the mid to late 1930s. German manufacturers continued making Transverse Shuttle machines until the outbreak of the Second World War, when most manufacturers switched over to the production of arms.
The shuttle moves from side to side in a straight line behind the needle. It fits snugly into its little bed, as shown in the second photo where I have slid back the plate.
The needle is threaded from front to back, whereas on a VS machine it is threaded from left to right. Different, but the same principle - in both cases you take the thread through the needle towards the shuttle.
TS machines make an excellent stitch, equal to that of any VS machine, which no doubt explains why the Germans didn't stop making them until history so rudely intervened.